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Monday, March 4, 2013

TUGAS BAHASA INGGRIS MODUL 6


TUGAS BAHASA INGGRIS

MODUL 6















Disusun Oleh :

Winarni NIM. 018731722


UPBJJ-UT SEMARANG KABUPATEN TEGAL
Jl. Anoa No. 45 Trayeman Kec. Slawi – Kab. Tegal
Passive voice


Pendahuluan

Dalam modul ini anda akan mem pelajari bacaan ataureading text mengenai pengelolaan perpustakaan sekolah atau pusat media (Managing school library media center ) , bacaan tentang topik ini terdiri dari bacaan tentang managing school library collection (Pengelolaan koleksi perpustakaan sekolah ), dan designing and using school library facilities (Desain dan penggunaan fasilitas perpusatkaan sekolah ).
Setelah mempelajari setiap kegiatan belajar dalam modul ini anda diharapkan mampu :
  1. Memahami setiap paragraf dari teks bacaan dan memahami pokok pikiran dari keseluruhan teks bacaan ;
  2. Mampu menjawab pertanyaan – pertanyaan mengenai teks bacaan ;
  3. Mampu memahami apa yang dimaksud dengan kalimat pasif ;
  4. Mampu memahami struktur dan pola pembentukan kalimat pasif ;
  5. Mampu membedakan kalimat aktif dan kalimat pasif
  6. Mampu mengubah kalimat aktif menjadi kalimat pasif ;

Passive voice 1 : Simple present tense , simple present continues tense , and simple future tense .
A. READING COMPREHENSION
  1. Reading Focus 1
Bacalah bacaan berikut dengan baik . Cobalah pahami setiap paragrafnya dan tuliskan pokok pikiran dari setiap paragraf .
Nah selamat membaca !

Managing School library Collection

The primary purpose of the school library program is student learning and , in order for this to occur , the school library must have in place efficient and effective management . The School library should provide acces to information in all formats , at all levels , and to all member of the learning community , As the quantity of infornmation escalates , the number and variety of information formats expand , and the concepts and proceses of information and technological literacy increase , the school library plays an important role as s gateway to all information resources , an effective school library provides intelectual and physical acces to a wide array of materials and services to meet learning needs , both within and beyon the school . Resources available in and / or accessible through the school library must support the purpose of the school library program . This means that school library resources mus support .
  1. Resources – based teaching and learning
  2. Individual and group research
  3. Individual and group reading / viewing / listening
  4. Development of lifelong learning skiils
  5. Development of information literacy skiils
  6. Development of technological skiils
  7. Development of media literacy skiils
  8. Development of the love of reading and appreciation of literatur
  9. Implementation and enrichment of the curiculum
  10. Deiverse need and interest af students
Collaborative collection development and evaluation ensures that resources, in a variety of formats, are available to meet curricular objectives. Resources are to be evaluated, selected, purchased, catalogued, organized inventoried, circulated, and maintained, in accordance with school library standards and with district approved policies and practices. The collection is to reflect an appropriate balance of print, non print and electronic and digital resources. The library catalogue, which includes records for all resources in the school, is to be accessible through remote databases or websites. The collection is to reflect the unique needs of the specific school population. Provision must be made for access to information resources beyond the school library through interlibrary loan and through current information and communication technologies. The collection should contain materials on learning and teaching practices, curriculum documents, and current scholarship in all curricular areas. Outdated and worn library materials must be regularly weeded. There are the reasons for collection evaluation and weeding, i.e ;
  1. Changes in the curriculum revise the focus of the collection
  2. Materials must be repaired or replaced if in poor condition
  3. The media center shelves should appear attractive and inviting to the user
  4. Numbers of items counted as holdings should represent useful resources rather than appear to be larger number of unusable items
  5. Students and teachers should have the best possible collection of materials
In addition, access to information and ideas is essential for students to become critical thinkers, competent problem solvers, and lifelong learner who contribute productively and ethically to society. The collection is to be designed to encourage free inquiry and to provide multiple points of view. Policy and procedures must be developed to deal with issues such as censorship, challenges to resources, intellectual property right (copyright), and ethical use of information technologies.
Appropriate funding for learning resources is necessary for school libraries to meet curriculum expectations and the individual learning and social needs of their students and teacher. Funding may come from variety of sources; however, consistence funding must be allocated for the purchase of resources. Funds from fluctuating sources such as parents, book fairs, and / or donations may be used to supplement the school / district budget or may be used for special project. School / district allocations should not be reduced when funds are received from these supplementary sources.
(sumber : Running A School Library Media Center By Barbara L. Stein, 2002).

Vocabularies Building
Primary (adj) : utama
Purpose (noun) : tujuan
Collection management : manajemen koleksi
(noun)
To provide (verb) : menyediakan
To escalate : meluas; meningkat
Technological literacy : melek teknologi
(noun)
Accessible (adj) : dapat diakses
Resource-based : pengajaran berbasis sumber
Teaching (noun)
Enrichment (noun) : pengayaan
To inventory (verb) : meginventarisir
Digital resources : sumber-sumber digital
(noun)
Library catalogue : katalog perpustakaan
(noun)
Interlibrary (adj) loan : pinjaman antarperpustakaan
(noun)
Outdated (adj) library : bahan pustaka yang kuno (ketinggian zaman)
Materials
Worn library : bahan pustaka rusak
Materials (noun)
To Weed (verb) : menyiangi
Collection evaluation : evaluasi koleksi
(noun)

2. Reading Focus 2
Nah ….. sekarang, coba Anda baca kembali bacaan berikut dengan baik, agar Anda dapat lebih memahami pokok pikiran yang terdapat pada setiap paragraph.
Selamat membaca!

Managing School Library Staffs

Library staff has an important role in performing school library media program. The availability of an adequate stock of books, properly housed is necessary for a good library service. There is however the need for qualified staff to effectively organize the stock for use in the attainment of the objectives of the school. It is recommended that every school library has a professional teacher-librarian and trained library assistant. Research indicates that the level and type of staffing for school library has a measurable impact on student learning and achievement. Students in school with well-equipped school libraries and qualified teacher librarians perform better on achievement test for reading comprehension and basic research skill. It has been found that a lack of clerical/technical staff has a negative impact on student learning.
Staffing the library media program, according to Information Power, consist of defining personnel needs, securing qualified personnel, developing staff competencies to perform essential tasks, establishing standards of performance, and evaluating personnel performance. A wide range of staffing functions is necessary to ensure that an effective information literacy program is available for students. Some of these functions involve teaching, some are electrical in nature, some technical, and others involve leadership, consulting and management. The best approach for an effective program is to develop a staffing model that integrates the necessary range of skills.
The school library program hepends on the leadership of qualified teacher librarian and the support of trained clerical/technical staff. These two staffing componenets play complementary roles that facilitate an open, accessible, well managed school library that provides students and teachers with effective, resources-based learning activities and access to a wide variety of information sources.
Adequate levels of teacher-librarian staffing are required to;
  1. Address curricular and literacy needs of the students
  2. Collaborate with classroom teachers to integrate information literacy skills across the curriculum
  3. Provide leadership in resource-based learning and teaching
  4. Select quality curriculum-based learning resources
  5. Develop policies to achieve equitable access
  6. Integrate information and communication technologies in to all parts of the curriculum
  7. Support and supervise clerical / technical staff and volunteers.

In order to allow the teacher-librarian to focus on professional instructional tasks, adequate levels of trained technical/clerical staffing are required to :
  1. Circulate school library resources effectively
  2. Process library resources so they are available for circulation
  3. Assist students with simple research queries and computer technology problems
  4. Maintain the computerized or online library catalogue
  5. Maintain statistics and inventories
  6. Prepare reports, correspondences, and bibliographies
  7. Prepare display of library resources and students work. (Barbara L. Stein, 2002).

Vocabularies Building
The availability (noun) : ketersediaan
Adequate (adj) : cukup
To house (verb) : menyimpan; menempatkan
Stock of books (noun) : persediaan buku
Library service (noun) : layanan perpustakaan
Properly (adverb) : dengan baik
Attainment (noun) : pencapaian
Teacher-librarian (noun) : pustakawan guru
Measurable (adj) : dapat diukur
Achievement (noun) : prestasi
Well-equipped (adj) : perlengkapan yang baik
Equitable (adj) access : akses yang tepat
Instructional tasks : tugas-tugas pengajaran
(noun)

B. GRAMMATICAL REVIEW

Kalimat Pasif (Passive Sentence)
Apa yang disebut dengan kalimat pasif ? Kalimat pasif adalah kalimat yang bentuk kata kerjanya merupakan sesuatu yang dikerjakan untuk seseorang atau dikerjakan oleh seorang pelaku atau subjek. (High School English Grammar: 1974).
Perlu diperhatikan, jika kata kerja berubah dari kalimat aktif menjadi kalimat pasif, maka objek dari kata kerja transitive di dalam kalimat aktif menjadi subjek kata kerja di dalam kalimat pasif (Wren & Martin, 1974 : 92).
Kata kerja transitive adalah kata kerja yang dapat diikuti oleh objek atau kata kerja yang membutuhkan objek (Betty Schramper, 1992; 120).
Perhatikan contoh berikut ini
Nancy mailed the letter
Kalimat di atas adalah kalimat aktif dan objek pada kalimat tersebut adalah the letter. Untuk merubah kalimat aktif di atas menjadi kalimat pasif, maka objek kalimat aktif tersebut yaitu "the letter" dijadikan sebagai subjek, sehingga kalimat diatas dalam bentuk pasifnya akan berubah menjadi "The letter was mailed by Nancy".
Nah, sekarang coba Anda pelajari tentang kalimat pasif ini dengan lebih seksama.
Salamat belajar !
Untuk membentuk kalimat pasif, maka rumus yang dapat digunakan adalah sebagai berikut :
Subject
To be (am, is, are) / auxiliaries
+ be
Verb in past participle (verb 3)
By
object

Perhatikan bahwa kalimat pasif dapat atau tidak dapat diikuti oleh "by phrase" (by + subject) pelaku di dalam kalimat aktif yang berfungsi sebagai objek dalam kalimat pasif.
Kita dapat menggunakan "by phrase" jika kita anggap orang yang melakukan kegiatan tersebut penting dan perlu diketahui.

a. Simple Present Tense
untuk membentuk kalimat pasif dalam tenses Simple Present dapat mengikuti pola sebagai berikut
Subject
To be
Verb
By
Object
I
Am
Verb in past participle
(verb 3)
By
Object
He / She / It
Is
You / We / They
Are

Perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut ini :
1) I read the magazine
2) The students borrow the books
3) The lectures teach the students

Kalimat-kalimat aktif tersebut dapat diubah bentuknya menjadi kalimat sebagai berikut :
Subject
To be (am, is, are)
Verb in past participle (verb 3)
By
Object
The magazine
Is
Read
By
Me
The books
Are
Borrowed
By
The students
The students
Are
Taught
By
The lectures

b. Simple Present Continuous Tense (Present Progressive)
untuk membentuk kalimat pasif dalam tenses Semple Present Continuous dapat mengikuti pola sebagai berikut
Subject
To be
Being
Verb
By
Object
I
Am
Being
Verb in past participle (verb 3)
By
Object
He / She / It
Is
You / We / They
Are

c. Simple Future Tense
untuk membentuk kalimat pasif dalam tenses Simple Future dapat mengikuti pola sebagai berikut :
Subject
Auxiliaries
(shall/will)
Be
Verb
By
Object
I / We
Shall
Be
Verb in past participle (verb 3)
By
Object
He / She / It
Will
You / They
Will

d. Simple Perfect tense
Subject
Auxiliaries
(have/has)
Been
Verb
By
Object
I / We
Have
Been
Verb in past participle
(verb 3)
By
Object
He / She / It
Has
You / They
Have


Perhatian :
Subjek pada kalimat aktif menjadi objek pada kalimat pasif.

Untuk mengubah kalimat pasif dalam bentuk negative dan kalimat Tanya (interrogative) disesuaikan dengan struktur tata bahasa Inggris yang berlaku, yang disesuaikan dengan bentuk tensesnya. Misalnya :
1) I don't see the movie
Kalimat ini adalah kalimat aktif dalam bentuk negatif dengan tenses present tense, apabila kalimat ini kita ubah menjadi kalimat pasif maka kalimat ini menjadi:

The movie is not seen by me (present tense)

2) The movie was not seen by me (past tense)
Kalimat ini berasal dari kalimat aktif berikut, yaitu :

I didn't see the movie

3) The movie is not being seen by me (present continuous tense)
Kalimat ini berasal dari kalimat aktif ; I am not seeing the movie.
Demikian seterusnya pada bentuk tenses yang lain, sekali lagi perubahannya mengikuti bentuk dan pola struktur bahasa Inggris yang sudah ditentukan berdasarkan bentuk tensesnya.
Sedangkan untuk kalimat Tanya (interrogative) dapat dilihat pada contoh-contoh berikut ini.
a) Do you hear a strange noise? (present tense)

bentuk passive voice dalam kalimat Tanya atau interrogative adalah :
Is a strange noise heard by you ?

4) Are your watching a new film? (present continuous tense)
Bentuk passivenya adalah : Is a new film being watched by you?



Passive Voice 2 : Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, and Simple Past Perfect

A. READING COMPREHENSION
1. Reading Focus 1
Nah … sekarang bacalah kembali bacaan berikut dengan baik. Cobalah pahami setiap paragrafnya dan tuliskan pokok pikiran dari setiap paragraph.
Selamat membaca !

Developing School Library Services
The main purpose of the school library is to support the educational system. It acts as a medium of education; as instructional materials center or learning resources center or a media resources center. It gives the students unlimited opportunities for learning, and keeps teachers and students up to date the most current socio-economics and scientific development. The school library is very important in the school system because it introduces users to the various sources of knowledge, and equips them with the ability to judge books. They are therefore educated not only through the use of books, but in the use of books. This guarantees a life-long self-education and self-enrichment academically for children. It is very important to the school library to plan the special program. The programs you plan are sure to attract the entire school's attention. Special programs provide a break from the routine of everyday school life and can provide some of the most memorable school experience for you, the teachers, and the students. Special program include promotional programs, reading contests, speakers, storytellers, book fairs, RIF (reading is fundamental) distributions, visiting authors, puppet shows, and media presentation. School librarians do many creative program for such special activities. Individual events featuring reading periods involving everybody in the school-sometimes called DEAR for Drop Everything And Read are popular and wide-spread.

Services to Students and Teachers
It is fundamental that all library resources and services be designed to meet the needs of students and teachers. To plan services to teachers, the media specialist or librarian must understand how they teach and what assignments they will make. To plan services to students, the media specialist must understand how students learn. The major task of the librarian is to turn units of curriculum into opportunities to blend classroom activities with use of the media center and its collection. The ultimate goal is to blend classroom and subject areas across the curriculum and across the school. To make this happen, librarians become leaders in the instructional team.

Welcome to the Library
For most children going to the school library is their first experience and will make a strong impression. It is up to you to make sure it is a favorable impression. Do not overwhelm them with rules and regulations on the firs visit, show them around, read a very short story to them, allow each child to borrow a book. On subsequence visits make the children welcome and always allow them to browse. If they enjoy the library as young children chances are they will continue to use libraries throughout life.

Library skills
Library skill is important to students that enable them to locate specific material in a library, and to make effective use of that material when they get it. Any formal instructional must be planned with the cooperation of the classroom teacher who will follow-up the library lesson with a relevant classroom activity.

Library Atmosphere
Children should see the library as a place in which learning takes place. The teacher should be fully involved in helping the children, not sitting marking papers. Students should be engaged in reading, choosing a book, locating information, or taking notes, but not writing a test which was missed. Children should never be sent to the library for disciplinary reasons, if they must be sent out of class send them to the principal not to the librarian.

Reading Promotion
One of the objectives of school library is to develop a reading habit to the students. School librarian must plan special program to promote reading habit such as story telling, reading aloud, book reviewing, book talks, reading contest, visiting authors, and DEAR program. These programs will encourage children to read and therefore should be planned as a regular part of the library program. (Blanche Woolls; 2004)

Vocabularies Building
Educational system (noun) : sistem pendidikan
Instructional materials : materi pengajaran
(noun)
A media resources center : pusat sumber informasi
(noun)
Opportunity (noun) : peluang; kesempatan
Scientific (adj) : ilmiah
To equip (verb) : melengkapi; membekali
To judge (verb) : menilai
A life-long self education : pendidikan mandiri seumur hidup
(noun)
Self (adj) enrichment (noun) : pengayaan diri
Reading contests (noun) : kontes membaca
Puppet shows (noun) : pertunjukan boneka
To blend (verb) : memadukan
To overwhelm : meliputi
To enable (verb) : memungkinkan
Reading promotion (noun) : promosi membaca
Reading habit (noun) : kebiasaan membaca

2. Reading Focus II
Bacalah bacaan ini dengan baik. Tuliskan pokok pikiran utama pada setiap paragrafnya.

Designing and Using School Library Facilities

To get the most out of your space, think of your library as you would your living room at home. Rearranging the furniture and accessories creates different moods, optimizes available space, and changes the traffic flow. Technology needs have made this aspect of running a library media center more challenging than ever. But a comfortable, welcoming environment can be achieved in the library as well as in a living room.
Your arrangement of the library must accommodate all the needs of your program including the collection, media center staff, student body, and class need. For instance, an elementary library needs an attractive, spacious story time area. A library with a paraprofessional staff needs to have workspace for them.

Creating Moods
The library can appear anywhere on the continuum between hard and soft. Most libraries have elements creating a hard effect, such as tables and chairs, computer workstations, and wooden or metal bookshelves. Some ways to soften this hard appearance and make a more inviting atmosphere are to add thins like plants, carpets, curtains, and beanbag chairs. The use of color is very important in creating the kind of mood desired. Cool colors such as blue and green are associated with calm, restfulness, and passivity. Warm colors such as red, orange, and yellow are associated with excitement, cheerfulness, and energy. Up until age six or seven, children prefer reds, oranges, and yellows. There is shift away from warm colors to preference for blues and greens as they grow older. Color also changes the apparent size of a room. Light colors enlarge a room while darker colors make a room appear smaller. Different areas of the library can be highlighted using varying colors. For example, a story hour area can be set apart by bright colors while a quiet study area will need a cool color. Natural lighting can create impressive images, but that is not always best for libraries. Some buildings have skylights and large picture windows flooding the interior with sunlight. This is good for growing plants, but it is hard on the eyes for reading. You might need to add curtains or blind during peak sunlight hours. The opposite problem of too little natural light is obviously compensated for by the use of artificial lighting. In this case, light walls and white ceiling will reflect the most light and reduce glare or eyestrain.

Open and Closed Spaces
A library needs a combination of open and private spaces. Open spaces are conductive to group interaction and are necessary for class activities. Closed or isolated spaces are preferred, even by young children, to peruse materials quietly. If your library is too small to provide adequately for these needs, the arrangement of furniture becomes crucial.

Furnishings
If you want to encourage group interaction, use round tables. Rectangular tables are conductive to everyone having his own little space. If more seating is needed, avoid sofas or joined chairs. People tend to sit by themselves on sofas. Your computers and the furniture necessary for that equipment take up a lot of room. IN addition to that, you must accommodate the power supply that runs all the equipment, the network connections as you become part of a larger network, and the cord required. For the security reasons, you will also want the screens facing in such a direction that you can monitor student use of the computers. All these factors can make computer arrangement awkward if not originally planned for, and you will find yourself placing large furniture in places you will not like. Find out if you can move computer drops and cable outlets and have new electrical outlets installed.

Traffic Flow
The first thing to consider in furniture arrangement is the traffic flow through the library. The best location for the circulation or check-out desk is near the door for security reason. This is high-mobility area requiring open space and not conducive to close or private areas. Instead, place news papers, paperback, and soft seating nearby. Another high-traffic spot is the online catalog location. Provide space nearby for note taking, and do not crowd the area with other kinds of furniture. Analyze student usage patterns to allow room for the collaboration that naturally occurs. Decide if your want standing stations or sitting stations. It is generally convenient to locate reference materials in this same area.
Your can affect the way traffic is channeled through the library by the way you arrange furniture. If there are no walls, you can create false entrance by arranging bookshelves around the imaginary perimeter of the library; leave opening in the shelves where you want students to walk. If the arrangement of the school and library dictates that student will walk through the library en route to somewhere else, you can direct that traffic to the least obstructive path by creating barriers with bookshelves, computers and other equipment, and furniture. (Blanche Wools; 2004).

Vocabularies Building
Moods (noun) : suasana hati
To optimize (verb) : mengoptimalkan
Traffic flow (noun) : alur lalu lintas
Comfortable (adj) : nyaman
To achieve (verb) : mencapai
To accommodate (verb) : memenuhi
Workspace (noun) : ruang kerja
To soften (verb) : memperhalus, memperindah
Restfulness (noun) : tenang
To Highlight (verb) : menerangi
Impressive (adj) : terkesan
Open space (noun) : ruang terbuka
Private spae (noun) : ruang khusus/pribadi
To Prefer (verb) : menghendaki; menyukai
Rectangular (adj) : segi empat
Perimeter (noun) : batas pinggir

B. GRAMMATICAL REVIEW
1. Simple Past Tense
Kalimat pasif dalam bentuk past tense dapat dibentuk dengan pola berikut.
Subject
(was were)
Verb in past participle (verb 3)
by
object

2. Simple Past Continuous Tense
Kalimat pasif dalam bentuk past continuous tense dapat dibentuk dengan pola berikut
Subject
To be (was, were)
Being
Verb in past participle (verb 3)
by
object

3. Simple Past Perfect
Kalimat pasif dalam bentuk past perfect dapat dibentuk dengan pla berikut
Subject
Has / have
Been
Verb in past participle (verb 3)
by
object

Bentuk kalimat pasif lainnya
1) Kalimat pasif dengan "Model Auxiliaries"
Kalimat pasif juga dapat dibentuk dengan menggunakan modal; seperti can, may, might, should, ought to, had better dan sebagainya
Subject
Modals (can, may, might, should, ought to, had (better)
Be
Verb in past participle (verb 3)
by
object

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